Among the countless “domesticated” ficuses, many florists distinguish Ficus Carica or figs due to its unique ability to bear fruit even at home. This amazing plant came to us from Asia Minor, and later spread to Central Asia, Caucasus and even Crimea, where it grows in the open air.
Ficus Carica in its natural environment:
Also, on the natural expanses of Ficus Carica in height can reach from 5 m to 10 m. The trunk of this tree is very short, thick, gray-brown bark. Leaves, depending on their location, may be solid, with mild notches (at the bottom of the trunk) or vane, divided into several lobes, heart-shaped (at the top of the trunk). In addition, the leaves are large enough, the upper plate is scabrous, green in color, the lower plate has small hairs, grayish green. In length they reach from 10 cm to 25 cm, in width – up to 20 cm, petiole – 7 cm in the natural growth environment of one fig tree has several inflorescences:
- exclusively female flowers, from which grow juicy sweet figs;
- male stamens;
- short-staffed (female), from which inedible fruits grow.
For home growing, for the tree to bear fruit, it is enough only female inflorescences, which give edible fruits. By the way, Ficus Carica is a two-house plant, which means that it does not require pollination by male inflorescences.
The fruits themselves look like a flattened ball, in diameter can reach 8 cm, with fine grains inside, very sweet and juicy.
Home care for Ficus Carica
From the description of the plant above, it is clear that Ficus Carica is quite different from its brethren and the external characteristics and ability to bear fruit even as an ornamental plant. But this has not affected its care in any way, i.e. has not made it burdensome.
- Lighting: Figs or figs (another name for this plant) like bright light, slightly shaded by direct sunlight.
Ficus Carica loves fresh air, so in summer it may be ideal for a balcony or rose garden.
- Temperature: apart from light, figs also like warmth. For example, in the summer period, the preferred air temperature is from +22 ° C to +25 ° C, and in winter the plant prefers coolness from +6 ° C to +10 ° C.
Like other species of ficus, fig tree does not tolerate a sharp change in temperature – it can cause premature fall of leaves and other troubles.
- Watering: Ficus Carica likes to water abundantly, especially in summer, as well as warm showers and sprays. But with the latter it is necessary to protect with a dirt film or a bag, so that there is no excess moisture.
- Air humidity: in summer – high, in winter – do not allow air to dry out.
- Transplantation: young plants are transplanted annually, and adults once in 2 years, in spring. For ficuses that have reached a large size, it is enough only to change the top layer of soil.
If you deepen the planting, the plant may release several new roots, which will increase the speed of development.
- Feeding: Fertilize figs during active growth, once every 10 days. You may use mineral or universal liquid substrates for fertilizing.
- Reproduction: Ficus Carica is multiplied by shredding or seeds. For the first method, it is necessary to cut a good stalk, approximately 15 cm. Dry the cut for a few hours (10-12) and you can start to take root. To do this cuttings should be planted in very nutritious soil, such as a mixture of sand and peat, a little watering with clean, constant water and build a small greenhouse with a cellophane bag or glass jar.
When multiplying with seeds, they should be washed and dried during the day, then placed in the ground and build a greenhouse. After the first leaves appear, they can be transplanted into the pot.
If the figs are multiplied by drawing, then the next year they will begin to bear fruit, but propagated by seeds may not bloom at all.
Diseases and pests Carica
Among the pests are already known to us: a shield, a mealy worm and a spider mite. You can prevent the latter by rubbing the leaves of the plant. But a powdery worm can destroy the plant, so it is best to get rid of the affected leaves, wipe the ficus with a damp sponge, as well as you can use carbonophos. You can remove the brush by hand and then treat the plant with a soapy tobacco solution. In addition, the fig leaves may suffer from excess or lack of moisture.